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    PPP模式下建筑企業的競合之道

    添加時間:2016/11/22    新聞來源:本站    點擊次數:2069
           隨著國家政治經濟環境及國內建筑市場環境的不斷變化,建筑業傳統發展模式與競爭模式難以為繼,使得建筑企業通過轉型升級獲得持續發展的內外在要求越來越迫切。在當前PPP大熱的背景之下,大力推行PPP模式被認為是支撐建筑企業轉型升級、實現跨越式發展的重要途徑。專家分析,一方面,PPP模式為建筑業帶來了更廣闊的業務市場和更寬廣的利潤來源。據悉,目前全國各省市擬推介及已推介的PPP項目投資額超過20萬億元,主要集中在市政公路、軌道交通、地下綜合管廊、醫院和學校等多個領域,通過大規模、多領域的推廣拓展了建筑企業的發展空間。同時,在PPP模式之下,建筑企業利潤來源由建筑施工的單一利潤變成了建筑上下游多個利潤點的匯集,可以分享項目投資、運營等多個環節的利潤,其質量、效益也高于傳統施工模式,提高了行業和企業的利潤空間,并使其盈利更加持續、穩定。另一方面,由于此輪PPP模式中建筑企業作為社會資本方要全程參與項目規劃設計、投融資、項目建設和運營管理等項目全生命周期管理,使得施工企業由原來單一的施工承包商向投資商、施工承包商和運維服務商的多重角色轉變,更有助于建筑企業實現投資、建設、運營一體化,為其轉型升級提供了機遇。當然,伴隨機遇而來的,參與PPP項目,也給建筑企業帶來了巨大的融資壓力和運營風險。

      綜上所述,建筑企業運作PPP項目,必須轉變傳統的角色定位、發展理念,并通過把控PPP項目業務鏈條上的關鍵環節和核心能力,鍛造自身的核心競爭力,方可實現企業的可持續發展。同時,PPP項目綜合性、長期性、復雜性、投資巨大等特點以及建筑企業一般性發展“短板”,決定了聯合其他社會資本、通過組建聯合體實現強強合作將是建筑企業參與PPP更具持續性的主流方式,這也暗合了PPP模式“專業人做專業事”的特性。

      一切從轉變傳統思維模式開始

      面對這一輪的PPP盛宴,建筑企業要緊抓機遇,更要謹慎以對。清華大學建設管理系教授、清華大學國際工程項目管理研究院副院長王守清提醒包括建筑企業在內的社會資本方:“需要注意的是,‘沒有金剛鉆,不攬瓷器活’,如果所提供的產品或服務不能符合政府的要求,則可能血本無歸。”而建筑企業提供符合要求的產品,其前提是基于PPP的特性,轉變傳統思維方式,在此基礎上,實現中鐵(上海)投資有限公司副總經理李川所認為的PPP價值理應包括的“讓有能力的企業更加有作為”。

      轉變“乙方”思維 更好地適應新角色

      專家提醒,在PPP項目中,建筑企業要注意轉變傳統的“乙方”思維。中國建筑股份有限公司基礎設施事業部執行總經理趙廣建在調研中重點強調,PPP模式的屬性決定了作為社會資本方的建筑企業,其角色定位發生了根本性變化,從過去單純的建設者轉變為現在的集投資、建設、運營等為一體的綜合服務商。這決定了PPP模式下的建筑企業已然從過去“為別人建項目”變為“為自己建項目”,企業的參與程度更深、參與感更強,相應的,肩上的責任也更大。為此,建筑企業就不能按照傳統的“乙方”思維去運作項目,去與合作方進行談判,必須以全新的角色定位對項目進行充分研究和策劃,了解合作各方的真實利益訴求,促成其在項目認知和運作上達成共識,共同實現公共利益最大化之PPP最大價值與目標。

      對于作為社會資本的建筑企業而言,逐利是其天然屬性,而財政部部長樓繼偉曾公開表示,PPP模式就是微利,但回報穩定,想要暴利的企業別來。同時,建筑企業發展至今,“重建設輕運營”的短期建設思維根深蒂固,與PPP項目要求相去甚遠。因此,建筑企業在參與PPP項目時,必須深刻認識其基本屬性,并轉變一直以來適應于短期、暴利項目的慣性思維。在調研中,當被問及在當前對民營資本尚不十分友好的PPP項目環境下,作為民營企業的江蘇南通三建集團股份有限公司(以下簡稱“南通三建”)成功破局的關鍵時,其董事長黃裕輝重點提到兩點,一是始終將實踐PPP模式視為其履行社會責任的常規動作,以平臺型企業的積極構建全面推進PPP項目實施。二是主動認知PPP并在主動認知的基礎上提前進行戰略布局的調整,研究轉型策略、健全體系。正是以這種思維方式的轉變為基礎,去主動認知和適應PPP,南通三建才在PPP市場上獲得了高度認可。

      更加注重從戰略高度把握市場需求

      趙廣建表示,PPP模式的推廣,要求建筑企業在戰略層面上,一方面要打通企業上下游產業鏈,如建立發展規劃、投資、運營等領域的戰略指導,抓住機遇促進企業持續、穩定發展;另一方面要培養積極的合作意識,與上下游產業合作、與資本合作。再大的企業,在PPP領域若是一直單打獨斗,其實施項目的能力都很有限。另外,PPP模式的大力推廣,無疑將大幅度提升建筑行業的市場化程度。中倫律師事務所律師周蘭萍表示,建筑企業在參與PPP項目過程中,要時刻把握市場動態,及時調整戰略。她表示,建筑企業的轉型升級是一個長期的資源運作和整合過程,關鍵在于企業對戰略方向的把控。具備資金、技術和管理水平的大型建筑企業,可以從傳統承包方式向設計采購施工EPC方式轉化,以及向工程+融資、工程+投資方向發展。對于中小型施工企業,則可以選擇發揮區域資源優勢,或與實力更強的大型央企、國企和民營企業合作,共同開發區域市場。

      更加注重以契約文化實現多方共贏

      契約精神對于PPP項目的成功至關重要。在關注政府信用風險的同時,建筑企業也必須改變以往“拿項目”的方式、人情化管理方式、以現場施工管理為主的項目管理習慣。中國葛洲壩集團企業管理部副處長劉斌表示,PPP模式下,建筑企業必須更加注重合同管理、樹立誠信觀念、強調誠信建設,與合作各方建立起以合同為依據、以商務為措施、以法律為手段的契約文化,從而保障各方權益和利益,共同分擔各類風險,實現多方共贏。(中國建設報)

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